This data set contains meteorological element observation data of heihe remote sensing station in the middle reaches of heihe hydrometeorological observation network from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015.The station is located in the east of dangzhai town, zhangye city, gansu province.The longitude and latitude of the observation point are 100.4756e, 38.8270n and 1560m above sea level.The air temperature and humidity sensor is located at 1.5, facing due north.The barometer is in the waterproof box;The tilting bucket rain gauge is installed at 0.7 m;The wind speed and direction sensor is located at 10m, facing due north;The installation height of the four-component radiometer is 1.5m, facing due south;The installation height of the two infrared thermometers is 1.5m, facing due south and the probe facing vertically downward.The soil temperature probe is buried at 0cm on the surface and 2cm, 4cm, 10cm, 20cm, 40cm, 80cm, 120cm and 160cm underground.The soil water probe was buried at 2cm, 4cm, 10cm, 20cm, 40cm, 80cm, 120cm and 160cm.Average soil temperature probes were buried in 2cm and 4cm;The soil heat flow plate (3 pieces) is buried 6cm underground.Two photosynthetically active radiometers were set up 1.5m above the canopy (one probe vertically upwards and one probe vertically downwards), facing due south.Steam dishes were also observed (E601B, diameter 61.8cm).
Observation projects are: air temperature and humidity (Ta_1. 5 m, RH_1. 5 m) (unit: c, percentage), pressure (Press) (unit: hundred mpa), precipitation (Rain) (unit: mm), wind speed (WS_10m) (unit: m/s), wind (WD_10m) (unit: degrees), the radiation of four component (DR, UR, DLR_Cor, ULR_Cor, Rn) (unit: watts per square meter), the surface radiation temperature (IRT_1, IRT_2) (unit:C), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2, Gs_3) (in watts/m2), soil temperature (Ts_0cm, Ts_2cm, Ts_4cm, Ts_10cm, Ts_20cm, Ts_40cm, Ts_80cm, Ts_120cm, Ts_160cm) (in:Degrees Celsius), soil moisture (Ms_0cm Ms_2cm Ms_4cm, Ms_10cm, Ms_20cm, Ms_40cm, Ms_80cm, Ms_120cm, Ms_160cm) (unit: c), up and down photosynthetic active radiation (PAR_U_up, PAR_U_down) (unit: second micromoles/m2), the average soil temperature (TCAV) (unit: c), the evaporating dish in the depth of the water, the depth (unit: mm).
Processing and quality control of observed data :(1) ensure 144 pieces of data every day (every 10min), and mark by -6999 in case of data missing;Data missing due to power supply problems;Due to collector problem, many observation elements have more error values;(2) excluding the time with duplicate records;(3) data that obviously exceeds the physical significance or the range of the instrument is deleted;(4) the part marked with red letter in the data is the data in question;(5) date and time have the same format, and date and time are in the same column.For example, the time is: June 10, 2015, 10:30;(6) the naming rule is: AWS+ site name.
For information of hydrometeorological network or station, please refer to Liu et al. (2018), and for observation data processing, please refer to Liu et al. (2011).
1. Liu, S.M., Li, X., Xu, Z.W., Che, T., Xiao, Q., Ma, M.G., Liu, Q.H., Jin, R., Guo, J.W., Wang, L.X., Wang, W.Z., Qi, Y., Li, H.Y., Xu, T.R., Ran, Y.H., Hu, X.L., Shi, S.J., Zhu, Z.L., Tan, J.L., Zhang, Y., & Ren, Z.G. (2018). The Heihe Integrated Observatory Network: A Basin-Scale Land Surface Processes Observatory in China. Vadose Zone Journal, 17(1), 180072. doi:10.2136/vzj2018.04.0072.(View Details |Download )
2. Liu, S.M., Xu, Z.W., Wang, W.Z., Bai, J., Jia, Z., Zhu, M., & Wang, J.M. (2011). A comparison of eddy-covariance and large aperture scintillometer measurements with respect to the energy balance closure problem. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 15(4), 1291-1306. doi:10.5194/hess-15-1291-2011.(View Details |Download )Cite as:
LIU Shaomin, LI Xin, CHE Tao, XU Ziwei, REN Zhiguo, TAN Junlei. < b>HiWATER: Dataset of hydrometeorological observation network (automatic weather station of Heihe remote sensing station, 2015)</b>2016. doi: 10.3972/hiwater.324.2016.db. (Download the reference： RIS | Bibtex )
Using this data, the data citation is required to be referenced and the related literatures are suggested to be cited.
1.Qiao, C., Sun, R., Xu, Z.W., Zhang, L., Liu, L.Y., Hao, L.Y., Jiang, G.Q. (2015). A study of shelterbelt transpiration and cropland evapotranspiration in an irrigated area in the middle reaches of the Heihe River in northwestern China. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(2), 369-373. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2014.2342219. (View Details )
2.Xu, Z.W., Ma, Y.F., Liu, S.M., Shi, S.J., Wang, J.M. (2017). Assessment of the energy balance closure under advective conditions and its impact using remote sensing data. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 56, 127-140, doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-16-0096.1. (View Details )
3.Li, X., Liu, S.M., Xiao, Q., Ma, M.G., Jin, R., Che, T., Wang, W.Z., Hu, X.L., Xu, Z.W., Wen, J.G., Wang, L.X. (2017). A multiscale dataset for understanding complex eco-hydrological processes in a heterogeneous oasis system. Scientific Data, 4, 170083. doi:10.1038/sdata.2017.83. (View Details |Download)
4.Song, L.S., Kustas WP, Liu, S.M., Colaizzi PD, Nieto H, Xu, Z.W., Ma, Y.F., Li, M.S., Xu, T.R., Agam N, Tolk JA, Evett SR. (2016). Applications of a thermal-based two-source energy balance model using Priestley-Taylor approach for surface temperature partitioning under advective conditions. Journal of Hydrology, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.06.034. (View Details )
5.Zhu, Z.L., Tan, L., Gao, S.G., & Jiao, Q.S. (2015). Oberservation on soil moisture of irrigated cropland by cosmic-ray probe. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(3), 472-476. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2014.2346784. (View Details )
6.Song, L.S., Liu, S.M., Zhang, X., Zhou, J., Li, M.S. (2015). Estimating and Validating Soil Evaporation and Crop Transpiration During the HiWATER-MUSOEXE. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(2), 334-338. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2014.2339360. (View Details )
7.Song, L.S., Liu, S.M., William Kustas P, Zhou, J., Ma, Y.F. (2015). Using the Surface Temperature-Albedo Space to Separate Regional Soil and Vegetation Temperatures from ASTER Data. Remote Sensing, 7(5), 5828-5848. doi:10.3390/rs70505828. (View Details )
8.Li, X., Cheng, G.D., Liu, S.M., Xiao, Q., Ma, M.G., Jin, R., Che, T., Liu, Q.H., Wang, W.Z., Qi, Y., Wen, J.G., Li, H.Y., Zhu, G.F., Guo, J.W., Ran, Y.H., Wang, S.G., Zhu, Z.L., Zhou, J., Hu, X.L., & Xu, Z.W. (2013). Heihe watershed allied telemetry experimental research (hiwater): scientific objectives and experimental design. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 94(8), 1145-1160. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00154.1. (View Details )
9.Zhou, J., Li, M.S., Liu, S.M., Jia, Z.Z., Ma, Y.F. (2015). Validation and performance evaluations of methods for estimating land surface temperatures from ASTER data in the middle reach of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China. Remote Sensing, 7, 7126-7156. (View Details )
10.Xu, Z.W., Liu, S.M., Li, X., Shi, S.J., Wang, J.M., Zhu, Z.L., Xu, T.R., Wang, W.Z., & Ma, M.G. (2013). Intercomparison of surface energy flux measurement systems used during the HiWATER-MUSOEXE. Journal of Geophysical Research, 118, 13140-13157. (View Details |Download)
11.Ge, Y., Liang, Y.Z., Wang, J.H., Zhao, Q.Y., Liu, S.M. (2015). Upscaling sensible heat fluxes with area-to-area regression kriging. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(3), 656-660. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2014.2355871. (View Details )
12.Li, X., Liu, S.M., Ma, M.G., Xiao, Q., Liu, Q.H., & Jin, R., et al. (2012). (2012). Hiwater:an integrated remote sensing experiment on hydrological and ecological processes in the heihe river basin. Advances in Earth Science, 27(5), 481-498. (View Details |Download)
13.Hu, M.G., Wang, J.H., Ge, Y., Liu, M.X., Liu, S.M., Xu, Z.W., Xu, T.R. (2015). Scaling Flux Tower Observations of Sensible Heat Flux Using Weighted Area-to-Area Regression Kriging. Atmosphere, 6(8), 1032-1044. (View Details )
14.Xu, T.R., Bateni, S.M., Liang, S.L. (2015). Estimating turbulent heat fluxes with a weak-constraint data assimilation scheme: A case study (HiWATER-MUSOEXE). IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(1), 68-72. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2014.2326180. (View Details )
15.Song, L.S., Liu, S.M., Kustas W P, Zhou, J., Xu, Z.W., Xia, T., Li, M.S. (2016). Application of remote sensing-based two-source energy balance model for mapping field surface fluxes with composite and component surface temperatures. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2016.01.005. (View Details )
16.Wang, J.M., Zhuang, J.X., Wang, W.Z., Liu, S.M., Xu, Z.W. (2015). Assessment of uncertainties in eddy covariance flux measurement based on intensive flux matrix of HiWATER-MUSOEXE. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(2), 259-263. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2014.2334703. (View Details )
17.Zhang, Q., Sun, R., Jiang, G.Q., Xu, Z.W., Liu, S.M. (2016). Carbon and energy flux from a Phragmites australis wetland in Zhangye oasis-desert area, China. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2016.02.019. (View Details )
18.Liu, S.M., Xu, Z.W., Zhu, Z.L., Jia, Z.Z., & Zhu, M.J. (2013). Measurements of evapotranspiration from eddy-covariance systems and large aperture scintillometers in the Hai River Basin, China. Journal of Hydrology, 487, 24-38. (View Details |Download)
19.Gao, S.G., Zhu, Z.L., Liu, S.M., Jin, R., Yang, G.C., Tan, L. (2014). Estimating spatial distribution of soil moisture based on Bayesian maximum entropy method with auxiliary data from remote sensing. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 32, 54-66. doi:10.1016/j.jag.2014.03.003. (View Details )
20.Xu, T.R., Liu, S.M., Xu, Z.W., Liang, S.L., Xu, L. (2015). A dual-pass data assimilation scheme for estimating surface fluxes with FY3A-VIRR land surface temperature. Sci. China Earth Sci., 58(2), 211-230, doi: 10.1007/s11430-014-4964-7. (View Details |Download)
21.Li, Y., Sun, R., Liu, S.M. (2014).Vegetation Physiological Parameters Setting in the Simple Biosphere Model 2 (SiB2) for alpine meadows in upper reaches of Heihe River. SCIENCE CHINA, doi:10.1007/s11430-014-4909-1. (View Details )
22.Ma, Y.F., Liu, S.M., Zhang, F., Zhou, J., Jia, Z.Z. (2015). Estimations of regional surface energy fluxes over heterogeneous oasis-desert surfaces in the middle reaches of the Heihe River during HiWATER-MUSOEXE. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(3), 671-675. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2014.2356652. (View Details )
23.Liu, S.M., Xu, Z.W., Song, L.S., Zhao, Q.Y., Ge, Y., Xu, T.R., Ma, Y.F., Zhu, Z.L., Jia, Z.Z., Zhang, F. (2016). Upscaling evapotranspiration measurements from multi-site to the satellite pixel scale over heterogeneous land surfaces. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 230-231, 97-113. doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2016.04.008. (View Details |Download)
24.Bai, J., Jia, L., Liu, S., Xu, Z., Hu, G., Zhu, M., Song, L. (2015). Characterizing the Footprint of Eddy Covariance System and Large Aperture Scintillometer Measurements to Validate Satellite-Based Surface Fluxes. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(5), 943-947. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2014.2368580. (View Details )
25.Zhang, L., Sun, R., Xu, Z.W., Qiao, C., Jiang, G.Q. (2015). Diurnal and Seasonal Variations in Carbon Dioxide Exchange in Ecosystems in the Zhangye Oasis Area, Northwest China. PLoS ONE, 10(3). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0120660. (View Details )
26.Xu, T., Liu, S., Xu, L., Chen, Y., Jia, Z., Xu, Z., Nielson, J. (2015). Temporal Upscaling and Reconstruction of Thermal Remotely Sensed Instantaneous Evapotranspiration. Remote Sensing. 7(3), 3400-3425. doi:10.3390/rs70303400. (View Details |Download)
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10.HiWATER: Dataset of flux observation matrix (eddy covariance system of Zhangye wetland Station) of the MUlti-Scale Observation EXperiment on Evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces 2012 (MUSOEXE-12)
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